This website uses both its own and third parties’ cookies, in order to provide visitors an improved navigation experience and services that are adapted to each visitor’s needs and interests. In accordance with the EU „e-Privacy” Directive, in force as of 26 May 2012, and with the provisions of the Law no 506 of 17 November 2004 regarding the processing of personal data and protection of privacy in the electronic communication sector, all the website visitors are required their consent before being sent cookies into their computers.
What is a "cookie"?
An „Internet Cookie” (a term known also as a „browser cookie”, „HTTP cookie” or, simply, a „cookie”) is a small file, formed of letters and numbers, to be stored on the user’s computer, mobile terminal or other equipment the Internet is accessed from. The cookie is installed through the request issued by a web server to a browser (for ex. Internet Explorer, Chrome) and is completely „passive” (it does not contain software programs, viruses or spyware, and is not able to access information from the user’s hard drive).
Purpose and use of cookie modules
This website installs cookie modules only in order to enable the improvement of the functions offered. The website does not use cookie modules in order to collect, process, distribute or record personal data.
„Cookies” play an important role in facilitating access and delivery of multiple services the user enjoys on the Internet, such as:
- Personalization of certain settings, such as:
- the language a website is viewed in;
- the currency certain prices or rates are denominated in;
- preserving the options for various products (measures, other details, etc.) in the shopping cart (and memorizing such options) – generating thus the flexibility of the „shopping cart”;
- accessing old preferences, by accessing the „Next” and „Back” buttons.
- Cookies offer website owners some feedback regarding the manner in which their websites are used by users, thus enabling them to make such websites more efficient and accessible to users;
- Allow multimedia applications or another type of applications from other websites to be included in a certain website, in order to create a more valuable, more useful and more pleasant navigation experience;
- Improve the efficiency of online publicity.
What are the advantages provided by cookies?
A cookie contains information that makes the connection between a web browser (user) and a certain web server (website). If a browser accesses that web server again, it is able to read the already stored information and to react accordingly. Cookies provide users with a pleasant navigation experience and support the efforts of many websites for offering their users convenient services (for ex., preferences as to online confidentiality, options regarding the website language, shopping carts or relevant publicity).
What is a cookie’s life cycle?
Cookies are administered by web servers. A cookie’s life cycle may vary significantly, subject to the purpose it is placed for. Some cookies are used exclusively for a single session (session cookies) and are no longer retained, after the user leaves the website, while other cookies are retained and reused every time that user revisits that website (‘persistent cookies’). However, cookies can be deleted by a user at any time, through the browser settings.
What are cookies placed by third parties?
Certain content sections on some websites may be provided through some third parties / providers (for ex., news box, a video clip or add). Such third parties may place cookies through another website, and such cookies are called „third party cookies” because they are not placed by the owner of the relevant website. Third party providers should also comply with the law in force and the confidentiality policies of the website owner.
Such cookies may come from the following third parties: facebook.com, twitter.com, etc.
How cookies are used by the website
A visit to the website may place cookies for purposes of:
- increasing the website performance;
- analysis of visitors;
- recording of users.
Other cookies of third parties
On certain pages, third parties may set their own anonymous cookies, for the purpose of tracking the success of some application, or for particularizing some application. Due to the mode of use, the website is not able to access such cookies; likewise, third parties are not able to access cookies held by the relevant website. For example, when the user distributes an item by using the button for social networks placed on a website, that social network will record the user’s activity and not the website the button is placed on.
What type of information is stored and accessed through cookies?
Cookies keep information in a small text file, allowing a website recognizing a browser. The web server will recognize the browser until the cookie expires or is deleted. The cookie stores important information, improving the Internet navigation experience, for example:
- settings of the language in which one wishes to access a website;
- keeping a user logged in the webmail account;
- online banking security;
- keeping products in the shopping cart.
Why are cookies important for the Internet?
Cookies are the central point of an efficient operation of the Internet, helping to generate a friendly navigation experience, adapted to each user’s preferences and interests. Rejecting or deactivating some cookies may make impossible using some websites. Rejecting or deactivating some cookies does not mean that the user will no longer receive online publicity – but only that this will not be able to take into account the user’s preferences and interests, emphasized by the navigation behavior.
Examples of important usages of cookies (which do not require the authentication of a user through an account):
- content and services adapted to the user’s preferences – categories of news, weather, sports, maps, public and governmental services, entertaining websites and tourism services;
- offers adapted to users’ interests – retaining of passwords, language preferences (for ex., displaying the search results in Romanian)
- retaining child protection filters regarding the Internet content (family mode options, safe search functions);
- measurement, optimization and analytics characteristics – such as: confirmation of a certain level of traffic on a website, what type of content is viewed and the mode in which a user reaches a website (for ex., through search engines, directly, from other websites, etc.). Website owners carry out such analyses in order to streamline websites, for the users’ benefit.
Security and confidentiality-related issues
Cookies are NOT viruses! They use plain text formats. They are not formed of code snippets, therefore, they cannot be executed or run automatically. Consequently, they cannot duplicate or replicate on other networks in order to run or replicate again. Given that they are not able to perform such functions, they cannot be considered viruses. Cookies may, however, be used for negative purposes. Given that they store information about the users’ preferences and navigation history, both on a certain website, and on other websites, cookies may be used as a form of Spyware. Many anti-spyware products are aware of this fact, and they constantly mark cookies for deletion, within deletion/scanning anti-virus/anti-spyware procedures. In general, browsers have built-in confidentiality controls, which provide various levels of cookie acceptance, the period of validity and automatic deletion after the user visited a certain website.
Other cookie-related security matters
Given that identity protection is very valuable, and is the right of each Internet user, it is recommended to be aware of the potential problems cookies may create.
Given that, through cookies, are constantly sent, both ways, information between the browser and the website, if a hacker or unauthorized person interferes during the transmission of data, the information contained by the cookie can be intercepted. Although a rare instance, this may happen when the browser logs in to the server by using an unencrypted network (for ex., an unsecured WiFi network).
Other cookie-based hacks involve wrong controls of cookies on web servers. If a website does not request the browser to use only encrypted channels, hackers may use such vulnerability in order to cheat the browsers into sending information through unsecured channels. Hackers use then such information for the purpose of unauthorized access to certain websites.
It is very important that users are careful when choosing the most appropriate method of protection of their personal data.
Recommendations for a safe and responsible cookie-based navigation
- particularize your browser controls, with regard to cookies, so that to reflect a convenient security level of cookie usage as far as you are concerned ;
- install and constantly update antispyware applications. Many of the applications for detecting and preventing spyware include detecting hacks on websites. Thus, they prevent the browser from accessing websites that could exploit the browser vulnerabilities, or download dangerous software;
- make sure that your browser is updated at all times. Many of cookie-based hacks are carried out by exploiting the weaknesses of old browser versions.
What to do if you do not wish to have cookie modules installed on your computer?
You have the possibility to block all cookie modules or only some of them, or even to remove cookie modules that were installed on your terminal. Be, however, aware that you risk thus not to be able to use certain functions. In order to activate such blocking, you should change the browser’s confidentiality parameters. Some third party operators developed tools the modules of which allow deactivating the collection and use of data.
Deactivation and refusal to receive cookies may make certain websites unfeasible or difficult to visit and use.
Further, the refusal to accept cookies does not mean that the user will no longer receive / see publicity online. It is possible to set the browser so that such cookies are no longer accepted, or the browser can be set to accept cookies from a certain website. But, for instance, if a user is not logged in by using cookies, they will not be able to leave comments. All modern browsers offer the possibility to change cookies controls. Such controls are found, as a rule, in the menus (buttons) “Options”, “Controls” or “Preferences” in the browser.